Dubai: The Founding Vice Chancellor of O.P. Jindal Global University (JGU), Professor (Dr.) C. Raj Kumar has been felicitated with the Global Education Leaders Award at the recently held India-UAE Partnership Summit 2018 (IUPS)in Dubai, UAE. The award was presented as a part of the IUPS Excellence Awards 2018, where Professor Raj Kumar was recognised for his exemplary contributions to research, innovation and institution building in higher education. Professor Kumar received the award from the UAE Cabinet Minister of Tolerance, His Excellency Sheikh Nahayan Mabarak Al Nahayan and Mr Navdeep Suri, Ambassador of India to the UAE.A Rhodes scholar who has studied at Oxford and Harvard, Prof. Kumar became the Founding Vice Chancellor of JGU at the age of 34 in 2009. Under his leadership, JGU has grown into a multidisciplinary and research-oriented university with eight different schools relating to law, business, international affairs, government & public policy, liberal arts & humanities, journalism & communication, art & architecture and banking & finance. This year, JGU was conferred with the status “autonomy” by the Ministry of Human Resource, Government of India and is one of only two private universities among the 52 universities, which have been given autonomy. It is notable that JGU is the youngest Indian university to have broken into the QS BRICS University Rankings 2019 and QS Asia University Rankings 2019. On receiving the award, Prof. Kumar said, “I am truly humbled that the exemplary achievement of JGU has been truly recognised in the international arena. I have received this award on behalf of the faculty, students and staff of JGU as it is they who have enabled us to reach where we are today. I would like to take this opportunity to recognise the visionary leadership of our benefactor and founding Chancellor, Mr. Naveen Jindal whose generous philanthropy established JGU a decade ago in memory of his father, Shri O.P. Jindal. Chancellor Jindal, through his farsightedness and generosity has built a global university in India to provide world-class education, while making immense contributions to knowledge creation and research. This act of institution building that Chancellor Naveen Jindal has promoted in India is the finest example of inspired leadership, corporate social responsibility and corporate philanthropy that is worth emulating. Professor Raj Kumar was also a key speaker at the summit where he spoke on three different thematic sessions: “Global Leaders Vision 2025: India – UAE Education Partnership”; “Creating Institutions of Global Eminence” and “Scope of Research-Innovation-Collaboration in Education between India and UAE”.Professor Kumar highlighted the expansion of the Indian higher education sector and how it is being developed through the five critical initiatives that focusses on providing autonomy to universities; internationalisation and global engagement; research excellence and publications; role of the public and private sector; and holistic regulatory reforms. Professor Kumar observed that: “India is a young nation that has a significant demographic dividend and is now empowering its universities to build a knowledge society. There is enormous potential for partnerships between UAE and India. The fulcrum around which these partnerships can be built are research, student and faculty mobility, dual degree programmes, and immersion programmes in both the countries. The Indian diaspora in the UAE can play a significant role in leading these efforts to build strong and substantive partnerships between universities in India and the UAE.”In the session on creating institutions of eminence, Professor Kumar observed, “The rankings of universities play a pivotal role in enabling institutions to assess themselves as to where they stand, but the mission of the universities should be defined by their own aspirations and commitment to promote excellence. Indian universities have begun to recognise the importance of international rankings and many of them are breaking into the world rankings.
Last week, Sonipat-based OP Jindal Global University broke into QS Asia University Rankings 2019, the annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds, the British education company. Earlier, JGU found a place in QS BRICS University Rankings 2019, from among 9,000 universities. “Asia rankings the region has 13,000 universities from over 40 nations are more competitive than BRICS rankings,” says C Raj Kumar, the vice-chancellor. In an interview with FE’s Vikram Chaudhary, he adds that getting a place among the top 3% in Asia JGU is ranked in the 400-450 bracket is an achievement for the nine-year-old university and for India. Excerpts: JGU is a young university. What helped you find a place among top 3% in Asia?
This recognition comes at a time when JGU has been conferred ‘autonomy’ by the UGC and HRD ministry. What helped was our core strengths including good faculty-student ratio (ranked 191 in Asia on this parameter), global faculty (rank 43 in Asia), inbound exchange students (rank 168), and outbound exchange students (rank 81). In faculty-student ratio, our score of 7.9 is more than regional median (7.2) and close to Asia-wide mean score of 8.1. On international faculty parameter, our score of 17.9 (i.e. 18 foreign faculty per 100) is far higher than Asia mean of 8.9. We send more than three students on outbound exchange programmes per 100 students (on average, an Asian university sends two students for such programmes per 100).More importantly, we are the one of the few non-STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) and non-medicine universities to have been included in Asia and BRICS rankings. What are the initiatives young universities take and older ones perhaps don’t?
The most important thing young universities do, or should do, is they keep their students central to the university ethos. Older universities tend to take their students for granted, because of repute and popularity, but that, somewhere, might lead to indifference towards students.Secondly, young universities should recognise the importance of research and knowledge-creation. In India, many universities ignore that research needs to be integrated into the curriculum, in all activities. For that, one needs a robust faculty that is not overworked and overburdened.Finally, we live in an integrated world and it’s important for universities to speak the language of global engagement. At JGU, we set out to build global collaborations. We have partnerships with over 250 universities from 55 countries, including faculty exchange, summer schools, joint teaching, research, conferences, publications, short-term study abroad programmes, joint executive education, etc. Thirty years ago, Prof Nian Cai Liu of Shanghai Jiao Tong University was asked by Chinese President Jiang Zemin to create a ranking system and the Shanghai Ranking was born. Does India need to do something similar?
It’s true that many India’s universities don’t find a place on reputed global rankings, but this does not mean we create our own ranking list. The beauty of the Shanghai Ranking is they were structured in a manner they kept standards quite high. So when they formulated their methodology, they knew that many Chinese universities will not be a part of rankings. This required courage, conviction, intellectual integrity.I feel that while rankings indicate general performance of universities, it should not be a tell-all story regarding India’s higher education. We do not need another global ranking list for India. QS India ranking made us aware of where our universities stand—it has its methodology rooted in Indian as well as international context. But do we need to recognize the importance of rankings?
Yes, and for that we need to invest in the right type of policies and resources that will empower our institutions. For example, I strongly welcome the move to grant more autonomy to our institutions. What we missed was that this only focused on autonomy given by government of India, but for those like us who work in higher education, it was quite different.Also, higher education is regulated by the state and professional regulatory bodies. So long as reforms relating to autonomy do not percolate into the state regulatory system and professional regulatory bodies, some of the objectives of these autonomy policies may not be achieved.Universities need to consider themselves as important institutional apparatus that can seek fundamental reforms on the basis of which they are governed. The higher education sector in India is over-regulated and under-governed. Unless we deal with this regulatory dilemma, we won’t be able to do what we need to, to transform our country’s higher education.
At a the #MeToo movement is exposing abuse of power by some men and also revealing the vulnerabilities of victims, experts have emphasised on the need for creating greater awareness about the rights of victims in the country.”We have always come across criticism that we don’t have mannerisms which show concerns for the victims because the law only tries to pursue trial against the accused, but the interest of the victim is neglected,” Chaman Lal, former Director General of Police and former Special Rapporteur, National Human Rights Commission, said at an international conference on victim assistance at the O.P. Jindal Global University (JGU) here.The two-day conference, held over the weekend, was organised by the Centre for Victimology and Psychological Studies (CVPS) of the Jindal Institute of Behavioural Sciences (JIBS).”Victimology and victim rights are things of recent origin in our country. This conference is an excellent platform to discuss these issues and how to work towards finding a solution,” the former DGP said after inaugurating the conference.The conference deliberated on multiple issues around victim assistance: Victims’ rights and the criminal justice system; violence within the family; sex, gender and sexuality; role of NGOs; violence against women and children; media and cyber victimisation; human trafficking and victimisation of immigrants.”The awareness of victimology in academia has to grow — many fields deal with similar individual and institutional phenomena,” said Professor C. Raj Kumar, Vice-Chancellor, JGU.In today’s world, ridden with violence and offence, victimology not only becomes a potent tool to educate citizens about behaviours that place them at risk of becoming victims, but also helps those working in criminal justice, law enforcement and mental health better assist victims, the experts said.Seventy papers were presented at the conference by eminent behavioural scientists and victimology and psychological studies’ scholars from across the globe, JGU said in a statement.The conference also saw the unveiling of an in-house journal from the Jindal School of Behavioural Studies — ‘Global Advances in Victimology and Psychological Studies’.
O P Jindal Global University (JGU) has been identified as a leading university in Asia according to QS ASIA University Rankings 2019. A research intensive university founded in 2009, JGU has been ranked among the leading 450 universities in Asia, placing it in the top 3 percent of more than 13,000 universities in the region.
Congress M P Shashi Tharoor congratulated the university on twitter for its extraordinary laurel by tweeting, “It is a proud moment not only for JGU, but for India as well. Congrats to Chancellor Naveen Jindal and my young friend VC Prof Raj Kumar who shared his dream with me in 2005”.
Naveen Jindal, founding Chancellor and benefactor of JGU said on achieving this milestone that to be recognized as the Youngest Indian university in a prestigious international ranking is a testament to the hard work and contribution of the faculty members, students and staff of JGU.
“We are deeply humbled by this international recognition that will further motivate and inspire us to pursue the cause of institution building in India,” said Jindal.
Professor C Raj Kumar, founding Vice Chancellor of JGU said that the international recognition has come at the right time when JGU has also been conferred autonomy’ by the UGC and Ministry of Human Resource Development. “Breaking into QS Asia University Rankings in barely nine years since our founding is an unprecedented achievement for an institution in its quest for eminence,” Kumar said.
Recently, JGU was ranked as the youngest Indian University in the QS BRICS University Rankings 2019 across five major countries that comprise the BRICS group (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) among 9,000 universities.
The ranking process of QS Asia University Rankings 2019 is quite stringent.
It uses 11 indicators to compile the ranking, including a global survey of 83,877 academics and 42,862 recruiters to assess the reputation of universities.
Over 13,000 universities in nearly 46 countries (and regions) in Asia were taken into consideration in the rankings
New Delhi: O.P. Jindal Global University (JGU) has been ranked in the 301-350 rank bracket of the QS BRICS University Rankings 2019, placing JGU among the top three per cent of the universities in the BRICS region that covers five countries namely Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. JGU continues to be the youngest Indian University to feature in these rankings. It must be noted that JGU is one of only two private universities to be ranked out of the top 75 Indian Universities.
Professor (Dr.) Raj Kumar, Founding Vice Chancellor of JGU received the award from Dr Rajiv Kumar, Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog on behalf of the university in the presence of Mr Jason Newman, Vice President, QS and Mr Ashwin Fernandes, Regional Director, QS along with other dignitaries.
Founding Chancellor, JGU, Mr. Naveen Jindal on achieving this feat twice in a row said, “This global recognition of JGU in our short but inspirational journey of 9 years is truly remarkable and something that we can be genuinely proud of in every sense of the word. We are aware that this important recognition comes with greater responsibility to persist with our relentless efforts to advance the cause of excellence in Indian higher education and foster new imaginations for the future. I congratulate all the students, faculty, staff and other stakeholders, including the parents of our students, who have helped develop the University to fully realise our founding vision. As we look at the future, we need to think about how to fashion the growth and evolution of this institution”.
The University has been ranked 23 out of 403 institutions among BRICS countries in the category of international faculty. In the 2019 edition of QS BRICS Ranking, JGU’s standing has improved in two key ranking indicators of ‘papers per faculty’ and ‘academic reputation’
Founding Vice Chancellor, JGU Professor (Dr) C. Raj Kumar said, “JGU continues to be ranked amongst the top 350 universities in the BRICS region by QS. We had broken into these rankings for the first time in 2018. As a result of our hard work, commitment, and dedication to the cause of JGU’s vision and mission, JGU continues to be the youngest Indian University to feature in these rankings.
“What has allowed us to achieve this is our vision that was inspired by our founding Chancellor, Mr Naveen Jindal and his passionate commitment to philanthropy, institution building and nation building. This global recognition of JGU in barely 9 years is truly remarkable and something that we can be genuinely proud of in every sense of the word.”
Professor (Dr) Raj Kumar further added, “Universities have a larger role to play in the development of societies. They need to assume a leadership role that transcends national boundaries and are able to appreciate diversity and pluralism in all its forms and manifestations. Universities need to recognize that they have a special role in society.”
This year a total of 9,000 universities in the BRICS region were considered with as many as 31 new universities, and 14 new entrants in India ranking. QS Quacquarelli Symonds, a well-known global think tank and consulting body for higher education recently released its standalone rankings of India’s higher educational institutions
It is notable that this year, 6029 of India’s higher educational institutions participated in the ranking exercise out of which 205 institutions were shortlisted. JGU was one among them. A team of officials from All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and University Grants Commission (UGC) visited the campus for a field inspection where they interacted with the faculty and students on issues including overall sanitation and hygiene, campus green cover, garbage waste-disposal techniques, environment consciousness and development, water-supply systems and JGU’s work in neighbouring communities to spread awareness and activities under Swachhata mission.
Mr. Naveen Jindal, Founding Chancellor, O.P Jindal Global University said, “It is a moment of great pride for all of us at JGU that we are among the top rankers for the second year in a row in Swachh Campus Rankings in India. Cleanliness is a way of life for us at the University and is part of our vision to build a world class university in India. We have always emphasised on the need for a clean campus and accorded highest priority and attention to cleanliness in all our initiatives. I thank the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India for bestowing us this honour. I congratulate the staff, faculty members and students at O.P. Jindal Global University and everybody who contributed towards this achievement.”
Upon receiving the award on behalf of JGU, Professor C. Raj Kumar, Vice Chancellor, O.P Jindal Global University said, “It is a great honour to be recognized as a leading institution in the higher educational category in the all-India Swachhata Ranking. The strong commitment to sustainability and environment is embedded in the institutional culture. We ensure proactive participation of students and faculty towards swachhata to maintain cleanliness in the premises and neighbouring surroundings. Such accolades give us enormous boost, encouragement and support towards fulfilling the vision and mission of building an institution of global excellence in India.”
Professor Y.S.R. Murthy, Registrar, JGU said, “JGU maintains a very high standard of upkeep with regard to cleanliness, environmental preservation and sustainability. For us, cleanliness is not just another element of administration, but a commitment borne out of conviction. As part of the Swachhata efforts, we have taken many initiatives for garbage disposal, clean energy and for a green campus. We are fully committed in this Swachhata endeavour.”
JGU is a fully residential campus and students are housed in 10 hostels, each with state-of-the-art amenities and hygiene facilities. Round the clock housekeeping activities are undertaken to ensure cleanliness. The hostels have 1658 toilets with a 1:2.61 toilet to female student ratio and 1:3.1 toilet to male student ratio. In order to reduce our dependence on ground water, 32 rainwater harvesting chambers have been constructed to recharge ground water level.
With over 7500 dustbins across the campus, a twin bin policy has been implemented for garbage segregation. Segregated garbage is collected by the Municipal Corporation of Sonipat. Green waste is converted into vermicompost for further horticulture use. Sewage water is treated in our sewage treatment plant and the treated water is used for irrigation.
JGU operates its food services through a modern centralised kitchen. In the kitchen and dining area, air cutters and ﬂy catchers have been installed to ensure insect free environment in addition to air handling systems that ensure proper air circulation and ventilation. Fire resistant stainless steel ceiling tiles and a fully automatic ﬁre suppression system ensure that kitchens are safe for the workers as well. In order to reduce human intervention in the preparation of food, fully automatic dishwashing machines and fully automatic chapati making machines have been installed.
58% of the JGU campus is under green cover including a 50 meters’ green belt on the periphery of the campus. This green cover is maintained by a team of gardeners. JGU campus is host to a wide variety of species of ﬂora and fauna.
JGU has installed a 100 KW solar power system which, on an average, generates 250 units/day. This energy is used in academic block in the same grid.
JGU has been selected under the Unnat Bharat Abhiyan. JGU has identiﬁed 10 villages for making them self-sustainable. These villages include Chhatera, Jagdishpur, Garhibala, Rathdhana, Rohat, Badh Khalsa, Bahalgarh, Nahara, Khanpur and Rai in the Sonipat District of Haryana. Swachhta campaigns have also been carried out in Tulip labour Colony, close to our campus. As a result of our eﬀorts, Rathdana, Jagdishpur and Jatheri have been made open defecation free. JGU proposes to adopt 15 more villages, thereby taking the total tally to 25 villages.
This is the second year in a row that JGU is getting the Swachhata Award
“We are all a part of the same rhetoric, the same story, which has been told to us very differently,” says Duaa Rehman, a freshman from the Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS). She’s one of over 20 students, from both India and Pakistan, who recently concluded a course on South Asian history which was co-taught by an Indian professor, Pallavi Raghavan from the OP Jindal Law School in Sonepat and Ali Usman Qasmi, from LUMS in Lahore.
Same same but different – that’s how we’ve come to understand the cultural similarities that tie us to our neighbour. We love their musicians, they love our movies (even when we don’t return that love), we love their suits and their male celebrities; we all love cricket. We love talking about how similar we are, we equally love avoiding the conversation about how we came to be different.
There are always two versions of history, says Rehman, “One from the history books and the experts, and the other from the stories of our grandparents.” While the history textbooks tell us the story of why it was necessary to create two nations, our grandparents tell us contradictory tales, alternating between nostalgic childhood memories in what was India/Pakistan and the brutal violence that was Partition. The truth, or something resembling it, as always, lies somewhere in the middle.
An interest in bridging this gap is what led Raghavan and Qasmi to come up with, ‘Beyond India and Pakistan: Changing the Foundations of South Asian History.’ In a short video describing the course, Raghavan says that the class aimed to examine a “series of episodes that remain of interest in both countries but which are understood very differently on both sides.”
How, for example, are Hindu social reformers who were also involved in anti-colonial activism, viewed in Pakistani textbooks? Do Indian students recognise that our textbooks taught us a version of national pride rooted in Hindu ideology? These were exactly the kinds of discussions these students stumbled onto each week as they discussed Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Gandhi and the other staples of our collective past, yet separate history.
Every Friday afternoon, students ‘met’ on Skype, physically separated by hundreds of miles and a tense political border, to discuss readings on everything from the Indus Valley civilisation to Sayyad Ahmad Khan. Divided into groups of 2-3 for projects, they ‘worked together’ on Skype, WhatsApp and e-mail. And when discussions spilled over allotted class timings, they continued to chat on Facebook.
Together, they managed to excavate neglected narratives through projects and papers that interrogated how Indians view Pakistan, applied postcolonial theory to South Asia as a region and questioned Pakistan’s narrative of what happened in 1971.
But the Partition has inspired several decades of stories, and on Facebook, these students built a running, living archive of Partition-related movies and news items, posting reviews, discussing and joking around in the comments sections.
One Pakistani student reviewed Padmavat, writing in a baffled tone about the villanisation of Khilji. Another noted the deep irony of the disclaimer at the beginning of the movie (something to say the movie doesn’t glorify sati) and then the elaborately shot conclusion which tells viewers that Padmavati’s decision to commit johar is a ‘noble’ one.
All hell seemed to break loose when such criticisms were aired in the Indian media around the movie’s release, yet here, in this virtual social-and-academic space, respectability and a willingness to engage ruled supreme. The same spirit carried some of these LUMS students to Delhi last weekend, where they finally got to meet their classmates and tour the places they’d spent three months discussing so thoroughly.
It wasn’t all smooth-sailing though. In the process of facing up to their nations’ blindspots regarding the ‘other’, some students ended up confronting their own as well. Akram recalled a surprising conversation during his visit to Delhi. He wrote in an email, “a freshmen female law student from OP Jindal asked me this silly question. ‘Do you guys have any shopping mall in Pakistan?’ I was literally shocked and then she went on asking ‘Is there any clothing brand there?’”
Akram got over his surprise and took the opportunity to tell the hapless freshman about Pakistan’s thriving garment export industry, and then when she asked if female lawyers were required to wear the burqa to practise law, an even more baffled Akram told her ‘no’ and gave her the example of Asma Jahangir and several other women politicians and sportswomen to correct her perception of Pakistan.
Reflecting on it now, he wrote that it wasn’t the freshman’s fault, “but it was alarming to me because she comes from privileged academic background.” If she was kept ignorant about the neighbouring state what about the millions of other people who have got no medium for the actual representation of Pakistan?”
Beyond the narrow confines of our history textbooks, outside the stereotypes of our movies and TV shows, far away from the hot takes of Twitter, the performativity of Instagram and the outrage-fuelled comment wars of Facebook and ignorant WhatsApp forwards, these students and professors managed to create an optimistic corner for themselves on the internet.
Emails, Skype, YouTube, Facebook, WhatsApp – internet technologies were the unsung hero of this entire venture.
Akram agreed, “It is by virtue of the technology that we came closer to each other and came about our (hidden) similarities and joined historical movements.”
Rehman said that apart from being excited about her academic interest in history, her family’s main question about this cross-border course was ‘how’– “They had difficulty understanding the idea of a cross-border classroom, with professors on either side,” she wrote.
For Raghavan, Qasmi and their students, what started off with a short promo video for the course on YouTube has now yielded not only a trove of papers and think pieces, but also a lively community on Facebook, not to mention a constant flow of WhatsApp messages and emails.
Actual borders may hold us back ideologically and physically, and rigid textbooks may propel us towards a very specific (read: nationalistic) outrage, but in moving the classroom into a virtual, borderless space, Raghavan and Qasmi managed to create the right conditions to discuss a borderless history.
Jindal Global Business School (JGBS) saw an all time high of internships and placements this year with exceptional hiring by industry giants. Numerous leading organizations visited the campus of school on the day of final placement. Amazon was the biggest recruiter with a maximum offer of 16 lakhs for a student. The other leading recruiters were Ernst and Young, HFFC, Genpact, HDFC Bank, Dyson, MC Saatchi, Brands of Desire, and ITC.
On this whopping placement, JGU Vice Chancellor Prof (Dr) C. Raj Kumar remarked, “We are constantly working to create new opportunities to meet expectations of students’ and cater to their career aspirations. JGU prides itself for facilitating a diversified range of professional opportunities to its graduates. These opportunities are not limited to corporates, but also include business enterprises, consultancy firms, investment banks, think tanks, research institutions, non-governmental organizations, intergovernmental organizations, and government agencies. We will continue to focus on expanding this network. Also, we expect several other domestic and international firms and institutions to hire from our future graduating batches.”
Many new companies such as Future Group, Bisleri International, Honda Cars, India Bulls, IDBI, Karvy, HDFC Bank, Decathlon etc also arrived for summer internship programme. The first year MBA students that partnered with IBM secured maximum international summer internships in Singapore and Mauritius. Along with maximum recruitments, students also got an opportunity to work on various domains and niche profiles.
“What is interesting this year is the wide variety of domains that the students have been offered. They have got opportunity to work in the emerging of business process engineering, business analytics and social media analytics profile. Our partnership with IBM has helped in providing immense opportunities in the area of business analytics and preparing our students for Industry 4.0,” said Dr Tapan Panda, Dean, JGBS.
Sonipat (Haryana), June 6 Jindal Global University (JGU) on Wednesday said 10 of its students have been selected for scholarships from the Israeli National Council for Higher Education for an international summer programme on conflict resolution.
With these scholarships, the students will be eligible for “International Summer Program: Identity-Based Conflict Resolution” course at the Bar Ilan University in Ramat Gan, Israel.
The scholarships cover tuition and housing expenses including weekday suppers, JGU said in a statement, adding that its Jindal Centre for Israel Studies was the first and thus far the only centre for Israel studies in the Indian academia.
The month-long interdisciplinary programme will begin on July 2.
“Going to Israel will certainly enable the students to have first-hand experience of the place where conflict, war and violence are often in the news,” said Khinvraj Jangid, Assistant Professor and Faculty Coordinator, Jindal Centre for Israel Studies (JCIS).
“Conflicts such as Israel-Palestine or India-Pakistan are complex because of the centrality of identity (ethnic, religious) questions,” Jangid added.
Eight of the selected students are from the Jindal School of International Affairs (JSIA) and two from Jindal Global law School (JGlS).
They are Neha Sirohi, Mansheetal Singh, Samarth Kavoori, Suraj Ranjan, Viswas Viswanath, Pragadish Kirubakaran, Megha Gupta, Hima Bindu from JSIA; and Keshav Mittal Kumar and Rishabh Rao Yandamuri from JGlS.
“These international exchanges not only will broaden the horizon of the participants but will also arm them with a greater degree of intellectual prowess towards global issue,” said C. Raj Kumar, Vice Chancellor, JGU